CSCI 1100 - Homework 6 - Files, Sets and Document Analysis

Overview

This homework is worth 100 points total toward your overall homework grade. It is due Thursday, March 21, 2024 at 11:59:59 pm. As usual, there will be a mix of autograded points, instructor test case points, and TA graded points. There is just one “part” to this homework.

See the handout for Submission Guidelines and Collaboration Policy for a discussion on grading and on what is considered excessive collaboration. These rules will be in force for the rest of the semester.

You will need the data files we provide in hw6_files.zip, so be sure to download this file from the Course Materials section of Submitty and unzip it into your directory for HW 6. The zip file contains data files and example input / output for your program.

Problem Introduction

There are many software systems for analyzing the style and sophistication of written text and even deciding if two documents were authored by the same individual. The systems analyze documents based on the sophistication of word usage, frequently used words, and words that appear closely together. In this assignment you will write a Python program that reads two files containing the text of two different documents, analyzes each document, and compares the documents. The methods we use are simple versions of much more sophisticated methods that are used in practice in the field known as natural language processing (NLP).

Files and Parameters

Your program must work with three files and an integer parameter.

The name of the first file will be stop.txt for every run of your program, so you don’t need to ask the user for it. The file contains what we will refer to as “stop words” — words that should be ignored. You must ensure that the file stop.txt is in the same folder as your hw6_sol.py python file. We will provide one example of it, but may use others in testing your code.

You must request the names of two documents to analyze and compare and an integer “maximum separation” parameter, which will be referred to as max_sep here. The requests should look like:

1
2
3
4
5
6
Enter the first file to analyze and compare ==> doc1.txt
doc1.txt
Enter the second file to analyze and compare ==> doc2.txt 
doc2.txt
Enter the maximum separation between words in a pair ==> 2
2

Parsing

The job of parsing for this homework is to break a file of text into a single list of consecutive words. To do this, the contents from a file should first be split up into a list of strings, where each string contains consecutive non-white-space characters. Then each string should have all non-letters removed and all letters converted to lower case. For example, if the contents of a file (e.g., doc1.txt) are read to form the string (note the end-of-line and tab characters)

1
s = " 01-34 can't 42weather67 puPPy, \r \t and123\n Ch73%allenge 10ho32use,.\n"

then the splitting should produce the list of strings

1
['01-34', "can't", '42weather67', 'puPPy,', 'and123', 'Ch73%allenge', '10ho32use,.']

and this should be split into the list of (non-empty) strings

1
['cant', 'weather', 'puppy', 'and', 'challenge', 'house']

Note that the first string, '01-34' is completely removed because it has no letters. All three files — stop.txt and the two document files called doc1.txt and doc2.txt above — should be parsed this way.

Once this parsing is done, the list resulting from parsing the file stop.txt should be converted to a set. This set contains what are referred to in NLP as “stop words” — words that appear so frequently in text that they should be ignored.

The files doc1.txt and doc2.txt contain the text of the two documents to compare. For each, the list returned from parsing should be further modified by removing any stop words. Continuing with our example, if 'cant' and 'and' are stop words, then the word list should be reduced to

1
['weather', 'puppy', 'challenge', 'house']

Words like “and” are almost always in stop lists, while “cant” (really, the contraction “can’t”) is in some. Note that the word lists built from doc1.txt and doc2.txt should be kept as lists because the word ordering is important.

Analyze Each Document’s Word List

Once you have produced the word list with stop words removed, you are ready to analyze the word list. There are many ways to do this, but here are the ones required for this assignment:

  1. Calculate and output the average word length, accurate to two decimal places. The idea here is that word length is a rough indicator of sophistication.

  2. Calculate and output, accurate to three decimal places, the ratio between the number of distinct words and the total number of words. This is a measure of the variety of language used (although it must be remembered that some authors use words and phrases repeatedly to strengthen their message.)

  3. For each word length starting at 1, find the set of words having that length. Print the length, the number of different words having that length, and at most six of these words. If for a certain length, there are six or fewer words, then print all six, but if there are more than six print the first three and the last three in alphabetical order. For example, suppose our simple text example above were expanded to the list

    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    
    ['weather', 'puppy', 'challenge', 'house', 'whistle', 'nation', 'vest',
    'safety', 'house', 'puppy', 'card', 'weather', 'card', 'bike',
    'equality', 'justice', 'pride', 'orange', 'track', 'truck', 
    'basket', 'bakery', 'apples', 'bike', 'truck', 'horse', 'house',
    'scratch', 'matter', 'trash']

    Then the output should be

    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
    
    1: 0:
    2: 0:  
    3: 0:
    4: 3: bike card vest
    5: 7: horse house pride ... track trash truck 
    6: 7: apples bakery basket ... nation orange safety
    7: 4: justice scratch weather whistle
    8: 1: equality
    9: 1: challenge
  4. Find the distinct word pairs for this document. A word pair is a two-tuple of words that appear max_sep or fewer positions apart in the document list. For example, if the user input resulted in max_sep == 2, then the first six word pairs generated will be:

    1
    2
    3
    
    ('puppy', 'weather'), ('challenge', 'weather'), 
    ('challenge', 'puppy'), ('house', 'puppy'),
    ('challenge', 'house'), ('challenge', 'whistle')

    Your program should output the total number of distinct word pairs. (Note that ('puppy', 'weather') and ('weather', 'puppy') should be considered the same word pair.) It should also output the first 5 word pairs in alphabetical order (as opposed to the order they are formed, which is what is written above) and the last 5 word pairs. You may assume, without checking, that there are enough words to generate these pairs. Here is the output for the longer example above (assuming that the name of the file they are read from is ex2.txt):

     1
     2
     3
     4
     5
     6
     7
     8
     9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    
    Word pairs for document ex2.txt
    54 distinct pairs
    apples bakery
    apples basket
    apples bike
    apples truck 
    bakery basket
    ...
    puppy weather
    safety vest
    scratch trash
    track truck
    vest whistle
  5. Finally, as a measure of how distinct the word pairs are, calculate and output, accurate to three decimal places, the ratio of the number of distinct word pairs to the total number of word pairs.

Compare Documents

The last step is to compare the documents for complexity and similarity. There are many possible measures, so we will implement just a few.

Before we do this we need to define a measure of similarity between two sets. A very common one, and the one we use here, is called Jaccard Similarity. This is a sophisticated-sounding name for a very simple concept (something that happens a lot in computer science and other STEM disciplines). If A and B are two sets, then the Jaccard similarity is just

$$ J(A, B) = \frac{|A \cap B)|}{|A \cup B)|} $$

In plain English it is the size of the intersection between two sets divided by the size of their union. As examples, if $A$ and $B$ are equal, $J(A, B)$ = 1, and if A and B are disjoint, $J(A, B)$ = 0. As a special case, if one or both of the sets is empty the measure is 0. The Jaccard measure is quite easy to calculate using Python set operations.

Here are the comparison measures between documents:

  1. Decide which has a greater average word length. This is a rough measure of which uses more sophisticated language.

  2. Calculate the Jaccard similarity in the overall word use in the two documents. This should be accurate to three decimal places.

  3. Calculate the Jaccard similarity of word use for each word length. Each output should also be accurate to three decimal places.

  4. Calculate the Jaccard similarity between the word pair sets. The output should be accurate to four decimal places. The documents we study here will not have substantial similarity of pairs, but in other cases this is a useful comparison measure.

See the example outputs for details.

Notes

  • An important part of this assignment is to practice with the use of sets. The most complicated instance of this occurs when handling the calculation of the word sets for each word length. This requires you to form a list of sets. The set associated with entry k of the list should be the words of length k.

  • Sorting a list or a set of two-tuples of strings is straightforward. (Note that when you sort a set, the result is a list.) The ordering produced is alphabetical by the first element of the tuple and then, for ties, alphabetical by the second. For example,

1
2
3
4
5
>>> v = [('elephant', 'kenya'), ('lion', 'kenya'), ('elephant', 'tanzania'), \
         ('bear', 'russia'), ('bear', 'canada')]
>>> sorted(v)
[('bear', 'canada'), ('bear', 'russia'), ('elephant', 'kenya'), \
 ('elephant', 'tanzania'), ('lion', 'kenya')]
  • Submit just a single Python file, hw6_sol.py.

  • A component missing from our analysis is the frequency with which each word appears. This is easy to keep track of using a dictionary, but we will not do that for this assignment. As you learn about dictionaries think about how they might be used to enhance the analysis we do here.

Document Files

We have provided the example described above and we will be testing your code along with several other documents (few of them are):

  • Elizabeth Alexander’s poem Praise Song for the Day.
  • Maya Angelou’s poem On the Pulse of the Morning.
  • A scene from William Shakespeare’s Hamlet.
  • Dr. Seuss’s The Cat in the Hat
  • Walt Whitman’s When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d (not all of it!)

All of these are available full-text on-line. See poetryfoundation.org and learn about some of the history of these poets, playwrites and authors.

Supporting Files

HW6.zip /en/csci-1100-hw-6/HW6.zip

Solution

hw6_sol.py

  1
  2
  3
  4
  5
  6
  7
  8
  9
 10
 11
 12
 13
 14
 15
 16
 17
 18
 19
 20
 21
 22
 23
 24
 25
 26
 27
 28
 29
 30
 31
 32
 33
 34
 35
 36
 37
 38
 39
 40
 41
 42
 43
 44
 45
 46
 47
 48
 49
 50
 51
 52
 53
 54
 55
 56
 57
 58
 59
 60
 61
 62
 63
 64
 65
 66
 67
 68
 69
 70
 71
 72
 73
 74
 75
 76
 77
 78
 79
 80
 81
 82
 83
 84
 85
 86
 87
 88
 89
 90
 91
 92
 93
 94
 95
 96
 97
 98
 99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
"""
This is a implement of the homework 6 solution for CSCI-1100
"""

#work_dir = "/mnt/c/Users/james/OneDrive/RPI/Spring 2024/CSCI-1100/Homeworks/HW6/hw6_files/"
work_dir = ""
stop_word = "stop.txt"

def get_stopwords():
    stopwords = []
    stoptxt = open(work_dir + stop_word, "r")
    stop_words = stoptxt.read().split("\n")
    stoptxt.close()
    stop_words = [x.strip() for x in stop_words if x.strip() != ""]
    for i in stop_words:
        text = ""
        for j in i:
            if j.isalpha():
                text += j.lower()
        if text != "":
            stopwords.append(text)
    #print("Debug - Stop words:", stopwords)
    return set(stopwords)

def parse(raw):
    parsed = []
    parsing = raw.replace("\n"," ").replace("\t"," ").replace("\r"," ").split(" ")
    #print("Debug - Parssing step 1:", parsing)
    parsing = [x.strip() for x in parsing if x.strip() != ""]
    #print("Debug - Parssing step 2:", parsing)
    for i in parsing:
        text = ""
        for j in i:
            if j.isalpha():
                text += j.lower()
        if text != "":
            parsed.append(text)
    #print("Debug - Parssing step 3:", parsed)
    parsed = [x for x in parsed if x not in get_stopwords()]
    #print("Debug - Parssing step 4:", parsed)
    return parsed

def get_avg_word_len(file):
    #print("Debug - File:", file)
    filetxt = open(work_dir + file, "r")
    raw = filetxt.read()
    filetxt.close()
    parsed = parse(raw)
    #print("Debug - Parsed:", parsed)
    avg = sum([len(x) for x in parsed]) / len(parsed)
    #print("Debug - Average:", avg)
    return avg

def get_ratio_distinct(file):
    filetxt = open(work_dir + file, "r").read()
    distinct = list(set(parse(filetxt)))
    total = len(parse(filetxt))
    ratio = len(distinct) / total
    #print("Debug - Distinct:", ratio)
    return ratio

def word_length_ranking(file):
    filetxt = open(work_dir + file, "r").read()
    parsed = parse(filetxt)
    max_length = max([len(x) for x in parsed])
    #print("Debug - Max length:", max_length)
    ranking = [[] for i in range(max_length + 1)]
    for i in parsed:
        if i not in ranking[len(i)]:
            ranking[len(i)].append(i)
            #print("Debug - Adding", i, "to", len(i))
    for i in range(len(ranking)):
        ranking[i] = sorted(ranking[i])
    #print("Debug - Ranking:", ranking)
    return ranking

def get_word_set_table(file):
    str1 = ""
    data = word_length_ranking(file)
    for i in range(1, len(data)):
        cache = ""
        if len(data[i]) <= 6:
            cache = " ".join(data[i])
        else:
            cache = " ".join(data[i][:3]) + " ... "
            cache += " ".join(data[i][-3:])
        if cache != "":
            str1 += "{:4d}:{:4d}: {}\n".format(i, len(data[i]), cache)
        else:
            str1 += "{:4d}:{:4d}:\n".format(i, len(data[i]))
    return str1.rstrip()

def get_word_pairs(file, maxsep):
    filetxt = open(work_dir + file, "r").read()
    parsed = parse(filetxt)
    pairs = []
    for i in range(len(parsed)):
        for j in range(i+1, len(parsed)):
            if j - i <= maxsep:
                pairs.append((parsed[i], parsed[j]))
    return pairs

def get_distinct_pairs(file, maxsep):
    total_pairs = get_word_pairs(file, maxsep)
    pairs = []
    for i in total_pairs:
        cache = sorted([i[0], i[1]])
        pairs.append((cache[0], cache[1]))
    return sorted(list(set(pairs)))

def get_word_pair_table(file, maxsep):
    pairs = get_distinct_pairs(file, maxsep)
    #print("Debug - Pairs:", pairs)
    str1 = "  "
    str1 += str(len(pairs)) + " distinct pairs" + "\n"
    if len(pairs) <= 10:
        for i in pairs:
            str1 += "  {} {}\n".format(i[0], i[1])
    else:
        for i in pairs[:5]:
            str1 += "  {} {}\n".format(i[0], i[1])
        str1 += "  ...\n"
        for i in pairs[-5:]:
            str1 += "  {} {}\n".format(i[0], i[1])
    return str1.rstrip()

def get_jaccard_similarity(list1, list2):
    setA = set(list1)
    setB = set(list2)
    intersection = len(setA & setB)
    union = len(setA | setB)
    if union == 0:
        return 0.0
    else:
        return intersection / union

def get_word_similarity(file1, file2):
    file1txt = open(work_dir + file1, "r").read()
    file2txt = open(work_dir + file2, "r").read()
    parsed1 = parse(file1txt)
    parsed2 = parse(file2txt)
    return get_jaccard_similarity(parsed1, parsed2)

def get_word_similarity_by_length(file1, file2):
    word_by_length_1 = word_length_ranking(file1)
    word_by_length_2 = word_length_ranking(file2)
    similarity = []
    for i in range(1, max(len(word_by_length_1), len(word_by_length_2))):
        if i < len(word_by_length_1) and i < len(word_by_length_2):
            similarity.append(get_jaccard_similarity(word_by_length_1[i], word_by_length_2[i]))
        else:
            similarity.append(0.0)
    return similarity

def get_word_similarity_by_length_table(file1, file2):
    similarity = get_word_similarity_by_length(file1, file2)
    str1 = ""
    for i in range(len(similarity)):
        str1 += "{:4d}: {:.4f}\n".format(i+1, similarity[i])
    return str1.rstrip()

def get_word_pairs_similarity(file1, file2, maxsep):
    pairs1 = get_distinct_pairs(file1, maxsep)
    pairs2 = get_distinct_pairs(file2, maxsep)
    return get_jaccard_similarity(pairs1, pairs2)

if __name__ == "__main__":
    # Debugging
    #file1st = "cat_in_the_hat.txt"
    #file2rd = "pulse_morning.txt"
    #maxsep = 2
    
    #s = " 01-34 can't 42weather67 puPPy, \r \t and123\n Ch73%allenge 10ho32use,.\n"
    #print(parse(s))
    #get_avg_word_len(file1st)
    #get_ratio_distinct(file1st)
    #print(word_length_ranking(file1st)[10])
    #print(get_word_set_table(file1st))
    
    # Get user input
    file1st = input("Enter the first file to analyze and compare ==> ").strip()
    print(file1st)
    file2rd = input("Enter the second file to analyze and compare ==> ").strip()
    print(file2rd)
    maxsep = int(input("Enter the maximum separation between words in a pair ==> ").strip())
    print(maxsep)
    
    files = [file1st, file2rd]
    for i in files:
        print("\nEvaluating document", i)
        print("1. Average word length: {:.2f}".format(get_avg_word_len(i)))
        print("2. Ratio of distinct words to total words: {:.3f}".format(get_ratio_distinct(i)))
        print("3. Word sets for document {}:\n{}".format(i, get_word_set_table(i)))
        print("4. Word pairs for document {}\n{}".format(i, get_word_pair_table(i, maxsep)))
        print("5. Ratio of distinct word pairs to total: {:.3f}".format(len(get_distinct_pairs(i, maxsep)) / len(get_word_pairs(i, maxsep))))
    
    print("\nSummary comparison")
    avg_word_length_ranking = []
    for i in files:
        length = get_avg_word_len(i)
        avg_word_length_ranking.append((i, length))
    avg_word_length_ranking = sorted(avg_word_length_ranking, key=lambda x: x[1], reverse=True)
    print("1. {} on average uses longer words than {}".format(avg_word_length_ranking[0][0], avg_word_length_ranking[1][0]))
    print("2. Overall word use similarity: {:.3f}".format(get_word_similarity(file1st, file2rd)))
    print("3. Word use similarity by length:\n{}".format(get_word_similarity_by_length_table(file1st, file2rd)))
    print("4. Word pair similarity: {:.4f}".format(get_word_pairs_similarity(file1st, file2rd, maxsep)))

Related Content

0%